how are copper deposits formed

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  • Formation of Sedimentary Rock-Hosted Stratiform Copper ...

     · Sedimentary rock-hosted stratiform copper deposits form by movement of oxidized, copper-bearing fluids across a reduction front that results in the precipitation of copper sulfides. Large-scale production of such oxidized fluids, as well as the formation of mobile hydrocarbons (oil) has probably been common since the formation of the first red ...

  • Understanding how porphyry-type copper deposits are formed ...

     · UK-based researchers found the missing link in models that explain the formation of porphyry-type copper deposits. Understanding how porphyry-type copper deposits are formed …

  • Porphyry copper deposit | mineralogy | Britannica

    Porphyry copper deposit, large body of rock, typically a porphyry of granitic to dioritic composition, that has been fractured on a fine scale and through which chalcopyrite and other copper minerals are disseminated.Porphyry copper deposits commonly contain hundreds of millions of metric tons of ore that averages a fraction of 1 percent copper by weight; although they are low-grade, the ...

  • Volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposit

    Volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits, also known as VMS ore deposits, are a type of metal sulfide ore deposit, mainly copper-zinc which are associated with and created by volcanic-associated hydrothermal events in submarine environments.. These deposits are also sometimes called volcanic-hosted massive sulfide (VHMS) deposits. The density generally is 4500 kg/m 3.

  • Copper | Geoscience Australia

    These secondary copper minerals may form rich ore in the upper parts of many deposits, and owing to their characteristic green or blue colour, even small amounts are easily seen in the rocks in which they occur. Copper bearing minerals are commonly found in association with minerals which may contain gold, lead, zinc and silver. Resources

  • Copper Mining History and Copper Harbor Michigan

    Of the 24 companies formed between 1844 and 1850, only six would pay any dividends and all were organized to mine mass and float copper deposits. The experience of the Pittsburgh and Boston Company demonstrates why individual efforts could not succeed. For example, in 1844-45, Pittsburgh and Boston stockholders spent $28,000 on diggings near ...

  • Development of a Copper Porphyry deposit

     · Development of a Copper PorphyryPorphyry copper deposits are copper orebodies that are formed from hydrothermal fluids that originate from a voluminous magma...

  • Copper | Earth Sciences Museum | University of Waterloo

    These deposits are formed by discharge of solutions into the seafloor. Porphyry copper deposits. A Porphyry Copper Deposit derives its name from a porphyritic stock located at the center of the material deposit. A stock results from a cylindrical mass of magma, which moves up through the Earth''s crust underneath a strato-volcano and cools.

  • How Ore Deposits Are Formed?

    New computer simulations by geologists from ETH Zurich demonstrate how large copper and gold deposits are formed. The enrichment process of these metals follows physical principles that are similar to the extraction of deep geothermal energy by hydraulic fracturing of the rock.

  • Studies re-examine how major copper deposits form

     · Studies re-examine how major copper deposits form. The Bingham copper mine in Utah, one of the largest in the world, exploits a massive porphyry copper deposit. Credit: NASA. Every year, the world consumes about 20 million tons of copper primarily for construction materials like electrical wiring and water pipes.

  • The Mineral Copper

    Copper found in the free metallic state in nature is called "native copper." It is found throughout the world as a primary mineral in basaltic lavas. The greatest known deposit of copper is in porphyries formed by volcanic activity in Chile''s Andean mountains. Copper was named for the island of Cyprus, where the Romans obtained their supply.

  • USGS Mineral Resources Program Copper—A Metal for the …

    Resources Program. Copper deposits are broadly classified on the basis of how the deposits formed. Porphyry copper deposits, which are associated with igneous intrusions, yield about two-thirds of the world''s copper and are therefore the world''s most important type of copper deposit. Large copper deposits

  • Geology of Porphyry Copper Deposits

     · A different but closely related group of deposits to Porphyry Copper Deposits are the skarn deposits. Skarns are formed when hot magma intrudes the limestone the fluids from the intrusive alter the limestone to form an exoskarn. The intrusives also simulates the limestone altering its composition and forming and endo skarns.

  • Geological ore deposits

    The largest deposits of this type are known as kuroko or volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits (commonly abbreviated as VMS deposits). These have formed on the ocean floor by circulating hydrothermal fluids emanating from a volcanic vent which leach metals from …

  • Types of Copper Deposits in the World | An Investor''s ...

     · Other types of copper deposits found throughout the world include: Volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) ore deposits, a source of copper sulfide formed …

  • Looking for Copper

     · Copper minerals such as chalcopyrite, bornite, and chalcocite occur along with gold and molybdenite in stock work veins and disseminated in the host rock. These predictable alteration and mineralization assemblages help guide geologists looking for copper porphyry deposits. Workers can use mapping and then drilling to define the mineral resource.

  • Porphyry

    Porphyry deposits are large (from 100 million to several billion metric tons [t]), low-grade (0.2–1.5 wt% copper, < 0.01–0.3 wt% molybdenum, and < 0.01–1 g/t gold; Fig. 3), disseminated and breccia deposits commonly hosted both in granitoid intrusions and the overlying country rocks, and directly associated with granitoid porphyry dikes or plugs.

  • Copper Deposits in Sedimentary and Volcanogenic Rocks

    Other deposits form in rocks deposited in shallow-marine, deltaic, and nonmarine environments by the movement and reaction of interstratal brines whose metal content is derived from buried sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Some of the world''s largest copper deposits were probably formed in this manner. This process we regard as diagenetic, but ...

  • Geology of Silver | Properties, Mining, and Formation of ...

     · Where to Find Silver Deposits. The main sources of silver are mined as an ore of copper, copper-nickel, lead, and lead-zinc. In nature, silver is more likely to be found as a compound. In 2014, there was estimated to be 26,800 metric tons of fine silver available in the world.

  • Copper Mining and Production Processes Explained

    Processes: copper mining and production. Copper is found in natural ore deposits around the world. This page explains copper mining: the production route taken from ore-containing rock to a final product that is the highest-purity commercial metal in existence and used in a wide variety of applications essential to modern living.

  • Ore deposits formed by oxidation and supergene enrichment

    Ore Deposits Formed by Oxidation and Supergene Enrichment · When ore deposits are exposed to the oxidation zone they are weathered and altered with the country rocks. · The surface waters oxidize many ore minerals and yield solvents that dissolve other minerals. · An orebody thus becomes oxidized and generally leached of many of its valuable materials down to the groundwater table, or to ...

  • Understanding how porphyry-type copper deposits are formed ...

     · Porphyry copper deposits provide 75% of the world''s copper According to the researchers, the link that they found is related to how vast quantities of mineralizing fluids are extracted and transported from their source magmas and focussed into the ore-forming environment through ''crystal mush dykes.''

  • Sedimentary Copper Deposits | INN

     · Sedimentary deposits are generally tabular, sheet-like or flat lenticular form. They are horizontal if not disturbed, but are frequently folded and faulted. Beds containing metallic ore are ...

  • Researchers examine how ore deposits are formed

     · Researchers examine how ore deposits are formed. by Peter Rüegg, ETH Zurich. Bingham Canyon in Utah (USA) is probably the deepest copper mine in the world: a mountain had to make way before the ...

  • What is a Porphyry Copper Deposit?

    copper deposits were formed during late Cretaceous to early Eocene time (75 to 51 million years ago). The one exception to this rule is Bisbee, which dates from early Jurassic time (180 million years ago). Although copper has been mined from a number of different types of mineral deposits, porphyry

  • Geology of Copper | Properties, Mining, and Formation of ...

    How Is Copper Formed? - Reference

  • Understanding the copper heart of volcanoes

     · Copper ore is predominantly in the form of copper-iron sulphides so an enduring problem has been how to simultaneously create enrichments in both copper and sulphur. Volcanoes rich in copper tend ...

  • Insights into the ''missing link'' of how copper ore ...

     · A new study, published in Communications Earth & Environment and led by BUFI PhD student Lawrence Carter, has provided important new insights into a ''missing link'' of how porphyry copper deposits (PCDs) form. It proposes how naturally occurring, copper-rich fluids are transported from their magmatic source deep underground towards the Earth''s surface.

  • Everything You Need to Know About Copper Porphyries ...

     · Porphyry deposits are very large, polymetallic systems that typically contain copper along with other important metals. Much of today''s mineral production depends on porphyries: 60% of copper, 95% of molbdenum, and 20% of gold comes from this deposit type. Where and How are Porphyries Formed?

  • Looking for Copper

     · Copper is one of the most important global infrastructure metals, and demand for it is rising. In 1980, less than 8 million tons were produced globally – a ...

  • Porphyry Deposits: The World''s Largest Source of Copper ...

     · Copper in these deposits generally occurs in copper-iron sulfide minerals such as chalcopyrite (CuFeS 2) and bornite (Cu 5 FeS 4). Brassy chalcopyrite is one of the common ore minerals in porphyry deposits. Over time, weathering of the near-surface rocks and the infiltration of surface water, can cause secondary copper-bearing minerals to form.

  • Porphyry Copper Deposits | Geology for Investors

     · Porphyry copper deposits are typically very-low grade with between 0.4 and 1% copper. The main mineral is chalcopyrite, which is finely disseminated through the host porphyritic rocks. The only reason these ore bodies are economic is because porphyries are huge, with hundreds of millions of tonnes available in a fairly low-cost mining setting.

  • Sediment-Hosted Copper Deposits of the World: Deposit ...

    For a sediment-hosted copper deposit to form, four conditions are required: 1. There must be an oxidized source rock. This rock must be hematite stable and must contain ferromagnesian minerals or mafic rock fragments from which copper can be . 5 leached. In Zambia erosion of an early-formed porphyry copper deposit is thought to have

  • Development of a Copper Porphyry deposit

    Development of a Copper PorphyryPorphyry copper deposits are copper orebodies that are formed from hydrothermal fluids that originate from a voluminous magma...

  • Geology of Copper | Properties, Mining, and Formation of ...

     · The deposits that contain the largest quantities of copper are called porphyry deposits, and the process of extracting it usually involves drilling an open pit into a layer of sedimentary rock. How Copper Forms in the Earth. To understand how copper is formed, it helps to look at how porphyry deposits—the largest current sources of copper ore ...

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